Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice pdf
police | Definition, History, Organizations, & Facts | golfschule-mittersill.comThroughout the history of criminal justice , evolving forms of punishment , added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs , political ideals, and economic conditions. Primates often have notions of fairness and sharing, with violations punished by exclusion or banishment from social groups. In human history, prior to agriculture, more nomadic cultures had systems of punishment for behavior or resistance, including those developed by the Huns throughout Mongolia. With the development of agriculture, which led to more closely populated cities and cultures and behavior to address fears of persons taking advantage of or causing harm to others, more formal systems of punishment for crimes developed, independently around the world, or based upon other cultures, including those developed in the early Babylonian laws of Hammurabi and the Hammurabic Code. Law enforcement in Ancient China was carried out by "prefects". The notion of a "prefect" in China has existed for thousands of years.
Information systems based on law enforcement agencies and the criminal justice system
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Police , body of officers representing the civil authority of government. Police typically are responsible for maintaining public order and safety, enforcing the law , and preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal activities. These functions are known as policing. Police are often also entrusted with various licensing and regulatory activities. However, police scholars have criticized this popular understanding of the word police —that it refers to members of a public organization having the legal competence to maintain order and enforce the law—for two reasons. First, it defines police by their ends rather than by the specific means that they use to achieve their goals. Second, the variety of situations in which police are asked to intervene is much greater than law enforcement and order maintenance.