Wastewater engineering collection and pumping of wastewater pdf
A septic tank is an underground chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic through which domestic wastewater sewage flows for basic treatment. They can be used in areas that are not connected to a sewerage system, such as rural areas. The treated liquid effluent is commonly disposed in a septic drain field , which provides further treatment. Nonetheless, groundwater pollution may occur and can be a problem. The term "septic" refers to the anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank that decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank.
A sanitary sewer or foul sewer is an underground pipe or tunnel system for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings but not stormwater to treatment facilities or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called a sewage system or sewerage. Sewage may be treated to control water pollution before discharge to surface waters. Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone. In municipalities served by sanitary sewers, separate storm drains may convey surface runoff directly to surface waters.
Sewage or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow , physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status which organisms it contains and in what quantities. It consists mostly of greywater from sinks, tubs, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers , blackwater the water used to flush toilets , combined with the human waste that it flushes away ; soaps and detergents; and toilet paper less so in regions where bidets are widely used instead of paper. Sewage usually travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer , which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility of which there are many kinds. Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design sanitary sewer or combined sewer.