Factor analysis statistical methods and practical issues pdf

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Factor Analysis - Statistics Solutions

Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. A survey of developments in multivariate analysis during the last thirty years shows that some, though not all, of the purposes for which factor analysis has been used may now be better accomplished by other procedures, e. To determine whether two or more groups of persons differ significantly in their mean values or their covariance matrices, the most appropriate procedures consist of methods of multivariate analysis of variance. Such methods have increased rather than diminished the advantages of using an external criterion instead of making a purely internal analysis.
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Factor Analysis - model representation

Factor analysis is a commonly used technique for evaluating the strength of the relationship of individual items of a scale with the latent concept, assessing content or construct validity of an instrument, determining plausible structures underlying a set of variables, and combining a set of variables into one composite score. In using the technique, the analyst must make decisions about the type of extraction and rotation to request and about the number of factors to retain.

Factor analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors. For example, it is possible that variations in six observed variables mainly reflect the variations in two unobserved underlying variables. Factor analysis searches for such joint variations in response to unobserved latent variables. The observed variables are modelled as linear combinations of the potential factors, plus " error " terms. Factor analysis aims to find independent latent variables.

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Factor analysis is a technique that is used to reduce a large number of variables into fewer numbers of factors. This technique extracts maximum common variance from all variables and puts them into a common score. As an index of all variables, we can use this score for further analysis. Factor analysis is part of general linear model GLM and this method also assumes several assumptions: there is linear relationship, there is no multicollinearity, it includes relevant variables into analysis, and there is true correlation between variables and factors. Several methods are available, but principle component analysis is used most commonly. Principal component analysis: This is the most common method used by researchers. PCA starts extracting the maximum variance and puts them into the first factor.

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Varimax rotation is a statistical technique used at one level of factor analysis as an attempt to clarify the relationship among factors. Generally, the process involves adjusting the coordinates of data that result from a principal components analysis. The adjustment, or rotation, is intended to maximize the variance shared among items. By maximizing the shared variance, results more discretely represent how data correlate with each principal component. To maximize the variance generally means to increase the squared correlation of items related to one factor, while decreasing the correlation on any other factor. In other words, the varimax rotation simplifies the loadings of items by removing the middle ground and more specifically identifying the factor upon which data load.


  1. Hank S. says:

    You can download and read online Factor Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical. Issues (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences) file PDF Book .

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  3. Melanie H. says:

    Factor Analysis: Varimax Rotation - SAGE Research Methods

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