Petrology igneous sedimentary and metamorphic pdf
Identifying Igneous Rocks -- Earth Rocks!
Petrology : igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks are usually grouped into three main groups: igneous rocks , metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, the crust. Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools in the Earth's crust, or lava cools on the ground surface or the seabed. The metamorphic rocks are formed when existing rocks are subjected to such large pressures and temperatures that they are transformed—something that occurs, for example, when continental plates collide.
Skip to search form Skip to main content. Mibei Published Generally rocks can be divided into three major types based on the process of their formation. These are; Igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks are formed by the solidification and cooling of magma in volcanic areas, while sedimentary rocks are formed by low temperature accumulation of sediments in tectonic basins and topographical sinks. Metamorphic rocks on the other hand are formed by application of temperature and pressure on pre-existing rocks.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism , which means "change in form". The protolith may be a sedimentary , igneous , or existing metamorphic rock. They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure, friction and distortion. They are also formed when rock is heated by the intrusion of hot molten rock called magma from the Earth's interior. The study of metamorphic rocks now exposed at the Earth's surface following erosion and uplift provides information about the temperatures and pressures that occur at great depths within the Earth's crust. Some examples of metamorphic rocks are gneiss , slate , marble , schist , and quartzite.
PETROLOGY, Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic by Ernest G. E. Ehlers and Harvey Blatt. W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, No. of pages:
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Principles and Practice
This undergraduate textbook on the key subject of geology closely follows the core curriculum adopted by most universities throughout the world and is a must for every geology student. It covers all aspects of petrology, including not only the principles of petrology but also applications to the origin, composition, and field relationships of rocks. Although petrology is commonly taught in the junior year, this book is a useful resource for graduate students as well. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Petrology Principles and Practice. Front Matter Pages i-vii.